Most Danes speak English, so students who come to Denmark do not need to know Danish. About 80% of the population understands English, and some speak German, French or Spanish. However, being able to speak Danish will benefit you both socially and in your job search.
A residence permit for studies is issued to foreign students, and allows its holders to attend free Danish language classes. To do this, you only need to pay a deposit of 2000 DKK, which is later returned in full. Students who receive government welfare benefits are exempt from paying a deposit. Students are entitled to language studies for 42 months within 5 years after arriving in Denmark.

Language training programs consist of different levels and each of them is divided into modules, which culminate in an official exam. Private, public language centers and many Danish universities offer Danish courses. Programs in universities often take place at the beginning of the academic year or as part of a university summer school.

In Denmark, children go to school at the age of 6-7 and are obliged to study up until they are 15-16. Education takes place in public schools (folkeskole), which are free and open to everyone. Denmark also has a tradition of private schools, attended by about 15% of all primary-level children.
After grade 9, students can go to elective grade 10 (if recommended by the school, to improve grades) or continue their education for several years. The next school level corresponds to ages 16 to 19 and is only required for those who want to go to university. Students can choose one of two paths:
  • General education or gymnasium — prepares for higher education;
  • Professional or technical education — prepares for employment.
Teenagers wishing to study at the university must choose one of the four educational programs:
TitleTranslation DirectionDuration
HF, Hojere ForberedelseseksamenHigher Preparatory ExaminationNatural and Social Sciences2 years
HTX, Hojere Teknisk Eksamen Higher Technical Examination Mathematics and Engineering3 years
HHX, Hojere Handelseksamen Higher Commercial Examination Trade, Business, Economics3 years
STX, Gymnasium GymnasiumBroad program covering different subjects3 years
If students have completed 10 years of basic education, they can study in high school, known as HF only for 2 years. If they studied for 9 years, their studies must last for 3 years (STX, HHX and HTX).
Private schools in Denmark can be roughly divided into the following categories:
  • Small independent schools in rural districts (friskoler);
  • Large independent schools in urban districts (privatskoler);
  • Religious or Congregational Schools;
  • Progressive free schools;
  • Schools with a specific educational purpose, such as the Rudolf Steiner schools;
  • German minority schools;
  • Immigrant schools.
There are about 20 such schools, 6% of all high school students study in them. The content of the curriculum is regulated in the same way as in public schools, because education leads to the unified high school exam (Studentereksamen).
Education in Denmark is recognized all over the world and is an excellent foundation for a future career, especially in fields such as natural and social sciences, engineering and IT. Denmark encourages innovation and invests huge sums in education that exceed 6% of the country's GDP[0]. And in terms of the number of Nobel Prizes per capita, Denmark ranks 7th in the world[1]. Thus, the quality of education, advanced Danish culture and a high standard of living attract international students, the number of which has already exceeded 30000 people.
  • English. Despite the fact that Danish is the official language in the country, universities in Denmark actively accept international students, as more than 700 programs are taught in English. However, it should be noted that a limited number of English-language bachelor's programs are offered. At the Danish Technical University (DTU) there are only 3 programs in English, and in some universities (for example, the University of Copenhagen) the entirety of bachelor’s programs are taught in Danish. In everyday life, a foreigner will not have any problems — the Danes occupy the 4th place in the world in English proficiency index[2].
  • Learning approach. In Denmark, higher education is focused on finding solutions for the real world: students use the knowledge gained and turn it into innovative ideas. Here, traditional lectures are combined with open debates, project work and industry collaboration. This way of learning requires a high degree of personal initiative and independent thinking. However, thanks to the Danish methodology, students tap into their potential, learn to think critically, work with others and be creative.
  • Applied nature of training. Danish university professors are also researchers and often past or present practitioners in their specialties. It provides up-to-date academic knowledge and a valuable practical teaching perspective. In the history of higher education in Denmark, more than 20 Nobel laureates have held professorships, including Werner Heisenberg (one of the founders of quantum mechanics), the brothers Niels and Aage Bohr (nuclear physics), Niels Finsen (the inventor of lupus treatment). In addition, Danish higher education institutions often partner with business, industry and research institutions, providing a dynamic learning environment in which students learn directly from industry experts. Many programs also include compulsory internships, providing students with the opportunity to gain valuable work experience.
  • Quality of life. In the OECD ranking Better Life 2019, one of the criteria in which is the quality of life, Denmark took 5th place[3]. It successfully combines social security, an attractive business climate, a clean environment and high standards in education and research. Moreover, Denmark ranks 2nd in the ranking of the happiest countries in the world[4], and the term "hygge" — the recipe for Danish happiness — has resonated throughout the world. Therefore, the future student will be lucky to learn the secrets of the Danes in practice and experience the Danish hygge.
  • Country location. Denmark is a gateway to other Scandinavian countries and the rest of Europe. Berlin is just an hour's flight away, while London and Paris can be reached in less than two hours. From here you can also fly quickly to Barcelona, ​​Rome, Vienna and Prague. Therefore, for future students, traveling not only in Denmark, but throughout Europe will become an affordable luxury: it will be possible to travel to another country for a weekend.
  • Different system. Studying in Denmark implies the independence and freedom of students. Such a system, combined with practice-oriented learning, is not suitable for everyone. There is widespread project work in teams, and individual assignments are given only a few times per semester. As a result, students receive a group grade and one final grade for the entire semester. Thus, students have no choice — they have to work in groups and find common ground with one another.
  • Accommodation. Danish universities do not have dorms on campus. Most of the students live in student residences (kollegier), located some distance away from the universities. Often international students rent or sub-rent rooms, some rent apartments or houses with other students. It is necessary to look for housing several months before arrival, since there are practically no options left right before the start of the semester. In August and September, it is especially difficult to find housing in large cities.
  • Expensive country. The standards of living in Denmark are one of the highest in the world, so living here, like in other Scandinavian countries, is quite expensive. For example, the monthly budget in Copenhagen will be around 1,524-2,143 USD[5]. However, when cutting some corners to save money, it is quite possible to live on a budget here. For example, students buy bicycles (no wonder Copenhagen is the most suitable city for riding[6]), cook at home and even fly to other countries to see dentists (buying air tickets and paying for services elsewhere will be cheaper than just going to a Danish dentist).

Cost and structure of education in Denmark

Type of studyAgeDurationMin. costAvg. costMin. language proficiencyExams
Summer camp 6+1-7 weeks995 DKK/week1500 DKK/week--
Language courses7+1-52 weeksFree1500 DKK/monthA1Conducted by schools
Secondary education10+8-9 yearsFreeDKK 81000/yearB1Exam / Interview
Foundation16+1 year90000 DKK/year100000 DKK/yearB2IELTS 5.0
Bachelor's 17+3-5 years Free 107000 DKK/yearC1IELTS 6.5 / TOEFL 79
Master's 20+1-2 yearsFree 75000 DKK/yearC1IELTS 6.5 / TOEFL 83
MBA20+1-2 years20000 DKK/program300000 DKK/programC1IELTS 6.5/ TOEFL 83 / Danish A-level
Doctoral 20+3-4 yearsFree 100000 DKK/yearC1IELTS 6.5 / TOEFL 83

ItemAverage cost
Registration fees750 DKK
Visa1900 DKK
Accommodation4000 DKK/month
Insurance200 DKK/month
Meals1700 DKK/month
Public transportation300 DKK/month
All prices and requirements must be checked on the university websites.

Options and schemes for admission in Denmark


Education in Denmark

Admission and requirements of Danish universities


In Denmark there are more than 700 degree programs and 1300 courses in English. They are open to both Danish and international students.
For admission to higher education institutions in Denmark, foreign applicants must submit:
For some creative specialties, for example, art and music, it is necessary to pass an additional exam-competition, which reveals the applicant's talent, or provide a portfolio. Normally the documents must be translated into Danish or English and notarized, but the requirements vary depending on the student’s home country. The application deadline for most higher education programs is March 15th.

Detailed information on eligibility criteria, including GPA, can be found here, and an overview of English-language programs is listed on UddannelsesGuiden.

Legalization and recognition of a diploma in Denmark

Denmark has joined the Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Public Documents, therefore, in cases where it is necessary, the documents are apostilled. But in most cases, for admission, you do not need to apostille a diploma or certificate, it is enough to translate the document and notarize the translation. Nevertheless, it is strongly recommended to check the requirements for the documents issued in a certain country.

If you need to legalize a document from Denmark, you will need to:
  1. Pay for the apostille online. The cost of the procedure is 200 DKK;
  2. Personally submit the document to the Legalization Office (the legalization process will take place on the spot while you are waiting) or send the document by mail (the application process will take up to 5 days from the date of receipt of the document).

Foundation programs in Denmark

Traditional Foundation programs are not so prevalent in Denmark like in countries such as the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Many of those on offer prepare for certain specialties, for example, for an engineering bachelor's degree. To enter, you need a school certificate and proof of knowledge of English / Danish. The study is aimed at preparing the student in specialized subjects and improving the knowledge of a foreign language. In addition, applicants get used to the education system in the country and to Danish culture. Additionally, there are Pre-Masters programs. For admission, you need a bachelor's degree and a certificate of proficiency in a foreign language (English or Danish).
As an alternative to Foundation, in Denmark there are programs of Higher Preparatory Examination (HF). They last for 2 years and are aimed at preparing for higher education. There are required subjects (mathematics, science, etc.), electives, Danish and English. For admission, 9-10 years of secondary school are required. The Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education evaluates the diploma for equivalence to the local one, and the final word on the admission of a foreign applicant remains with the director of the program / school[7].
In addition, there are many summer schools in Denmark. As a rule, they teach in English. There, both Danes and foreigners study. Courses are offered at different levels and within different areas of specialization, for example, in economics, law, tourism. Here you can find a list of summer schools.

Vocational education in Denmark

Vocational education exists in Denmark in the form of Academy Profession degrees (erhvervsakademigrad, AP). They are awarded after 1.5-2.5 years of study (90, 120 or 150 ECTS) and include compulsory employment lasting at least 3 months (15 ECTS). Most of the programs are designed for 2 years (120 ECTS) and are equivalent to 2 years of bachelor's program — in a way it is an analogue of the Associate's degree in the US, Canada, the Netherlands and some other countries. Teaching combines theory and practice. Professional programs are offered in the following disciplines: business and economics, technology, IT, laboratory technology, marketing, chemistry, biotechnology and social sciences, management, tourism, media, design and healthcare.
For admission, you will need:
  • General secondary education or a corresponding vocational education, supplemented by general secondary school subjects (for example, mathematics, physics or English);
  • Language certificate (IELTS 6.5, TOEFL 79) / Danish (level A / B).
Business academies and university colleges implement erhvervsakademigrad (AP). Graduates of certain specialties can continue their education at a professional bachelor's degree (takes 1.5 years) or go to work. Here you can find professional programs.

Bachelor's degree in Denmark — Undergraduate

In Denmark bachelor's degree is represented by:
  • Professional bachelor’s (professionsbachelorgrad) lasts 3-4 years (180-240 ECTS) and includes at least 6 months of internship (30 ECTS). You can apply for it after an AP (erhvervsakademigrad), in that case the study will take 1.5 years. The programs combine theoretical and practical approaches. Examples of vocational bachelor’s disciplines are nursing, teaching (usually school), some engineering specialties. Most graduates of professional bachelor's degrees find work in the public sector, for example as teachers, nurses and social workers, while programs in fields such as engineering, IT, business, media and communications are focused on the private sector.
  • Standard bachelor’s (bachelorgrad) lasts 3 years (180 ECTS). The programs are research-based and include a final project. Universities offer training in all scientific fields.
  • Bachelor of Arts (bachelorgradikunst) takes 3 years (180 ECTS), in the field of theater and cinema — 4 years (240 ECTS). Admission is carried out by entrance examinations. The programs are based on scientific and artistic research. Studies are offered in the field of visual arts: architecture, design, music, etc.
After completing any bachelor's degree, young specialists can continue their higher education or start looking for work in a profession.
For admission you will need:
  • Completed application form;
  • Equivalent of the Danish school diploma. Here you can determine if your diploma is suitable for admission. Applicants that have completed International Baccalaureate or A-levels, go straight to the first year of a Bachelor’s program;
  • Program-specific requirements:
    • Grades in individual subjects;
    • Threshold GPA;
    • Entrance test or interview;
  • Proof of knowledge of English (IELTS 6.5 / TOEFL 79) / Danish (Studieprøven i dansk som andetsprog / Danskprøve 2);
In addition to the certificate, the institution may require a student to take supplementarycourses for admission. It can be 1 year of bachelor's studies at a university of your home country or mastering at least two disciplines of the Danish HF high school with exams (upper secondary bridging courses). Sometimes universities accept students with 11 years of education without additional courses, but with a GPA of at least 4.5.
The deadline for accepting documents for a bachelor's degree in 2020 is March 22. Most programs begin in August or September, some — in January / February. Their deadlines are usually set for September 1st. Universities publish application forms approximately two months before the deadline. They can also be found on this [www.optagelse.dk site].

For programs in which the number of applicants exceeds the number of available places, the emphasis is placed on the GPA and entrance exams, then on the remaining criteria. Applicants can apply for 8 programs simultaneously. The documents are submitted here.
More information about the application process for the bachelor’s programs in Denmark can be found here. The available bachelor’s programs are compiled on this list.

Master’s in Denmark — Graduate / Postgraduate

A master's degree (masteruddannelse) is awarded after 2 (in some cases 3) years of study (60 ECTS and 90 ECTS, respectively). Some Master's programs are longer, such as Medicine — 3 years (180 ECTS) and Veterinary Medicine — 2.5 years (150 ECTS). The Master's degree (Candidatus) is only available at universities and in higher education institutions of arts and architecture at the university level.
The curriculum consists of compulsory subjects, electives and thematic courses. The main teaching method is problem-based learning. Students attend seminars and lectures, solve theoretical and practical assignments, work in groups and individually, as well as undergo internships and participate in exchange programs. At the end of their studies, master’s students submit a dissertation, which they work on for 6-9 months in teams or independently.

For admission you usually need:
Each university puts forward its own requirements, so the information must be clarified on the official websites.

PhD in Denmark — Postgraduate

There are 2 types of doctoral studies (PhD), which usually last 3 years:
  • Standard research doctorate at a university;
  • Industrial doctorate.
The latter is a project in the area of ​​the company's interests. The student is simultaneously enrolled in the university and hired by the company as an employee. The system was developed for cooperation between companies and universities and promotion of research and development in Danish industry.

Study in PhD programs (180 ECTS) consists of taught courses and independent research. Within 3 months, the student and the academic supervisor create a curriculum and research project, which the university reviews and approves. The curriculum should include 6-month courses related to the research topic. PhD candidates additionally teach and/or share research results (dissertation) through presentations and publications.
Often, Danish universities send students to foreign universities or to production, so that the resulting scientific work is multifaceted and fundamental. PhD candidates defend their dissertations not only in front of academicians of the alma mater, but also in front of foreign professors and expert practitioners.

Submission of applications to PhD programs is done through projects postings on the websites of universities.
Typically, applicants go for an already known research topic or offer their own research ideas. Each university puts forward its own criteria for applicants. Usually the requirements are:

  • Master's degree (two years) in a related or the same specialty and a transcript. There are programs that accept students with a bachelor's degree, but in this case, the study will last 4 years;
  • Language certificate in English (IELTS 6.5 / TOEFL 83) / Danish (Studieprøven i dansk som andetsprog / Danskprøve 2);
  • Motivation letter;
  • Letters of recommendation;
  • Research proposal;
  • Interview.
Often, PhD candidates look for funding and scholarships that cover tuition fees, book costs, travel expenses, etc. Sometimes universities and other organizations pay salaries to doctoral students (studentships). You can look for scholarships in universities, research centers, private foundations and enterprises. It should be noted that the competition for PhD in Denmark is high. Current opportunities can be found here and here.

Academic career in Denmark begins with positions of Assistant Professor / Researcher, which last for approximately 4 years. The main duties of an Assistant Professor are research (publications) and teaching. Researcher conducts research, teaches and sometimes gives scientific advice to the public sector. Usually these are temporary full-time positions. To obtain a permanent contract, you must successfully complete an intensive evaluation period, which takes place during the last 6 months of the fixed-term contract.
The next positions are Associate Professor / Senior Lecturer, and then Professor. These are permanent. The university can offer especially talented Associate Professors / Senior Researchers promotions to a Professor status, if they have international recognition and research. Other qualifications may also be required, such as knowledge and technology transfer, patenting and collaboration with external partners. There are also positions: Research Assistant, Teaching Assistant, Teaching Assistant Professor / Teaching Associate Professor, Teaching Assistant Professor, Teaching Associate Professor, Part-time Lecturer, etc.
Teaching experience and a good track record of research are required to advance the career. The Danish educational system is open to foreign scholars. It is desirable to know Danish, but since universities offer English-language programs, and the teachers and university administration speak English, not knowing the official language will not be an obstacle. Universities sometimes pay foreign professors more than local professors, and additionally help especially talented scientists with travel expenses. Salaries at the Danish academy range from 330000 DKK to 620000 DKK per year before tax removal.

Scholarships and grants in Denmark

Danish government scholarships for international students. Danish universities receive annual government funding for outstanding full-time students.
To receive a scholarship, the applicant must:
  • Be a citizen of a country outside of the EU, EEA or Switzerland;
  • Be enrolled in full-time bachelor’s / master’s / PhD programs;
  • Have a temporary student residence permit.
Ineligible for state scholarship:
  • Applicants to art higher educational institutions;
  • Having a legal claim to the rights of Danish citizens;
  • Those to whom a residence permit was issued as a child of a foreign citizen with a residence permit not from the EU / EEA;
  • Students who are eligible for a grant under Danish public education fund legislation.
The scholarships are awarded by the universities themselves, and they set the requirements on their own. Please note: the state scholarship consists of two parts and can be granted in full or in part. Additional information is indicated on the websites of universities.

There are also scholarships from the Danish government as part of cultural agreements. They are intended for students wishing to come to Denmark for exchange from their university. You can read more about the scholarship here.
Erasmus offers students from the EU/EEA and Switzerland to study for exchange semester or a year in Denmark universities. Home universities or the national educational agency usually provide in-depth information. To learn more about the requirements and eligibility, please refer to the website of the European Commission.
The rest of the scholarships can be found in the database Ploteus. PhD candidates and researchers can find opportunities on the European Researchers Portal.

Student visa to Denmark

EU/EEA nationals do not need any visas to enter the country. However, they are required to get a registration certificate once they arrive in Denmark.
To obtain a residence permit in Denmark, non-EU/EEA citizens need:
  • Completed application form;
  • Passport and copy;
  • Letter of invitation from an accredited educational institution;
  • Language certificate (Danish or English);
  • Proof of funds, for example a bank statement (6243 DKK per month, maximum 12 months). If the applicant has already paid for the first semester tuition, this is considered as a document confirming the availability of sufficient funds. In this case, no additional documentation is required;
  • Payment of visa fee (1900 DKK).
If the applicant is under 18, it is necessary to provide:
  • Notarized consent of both parents for the trip, translated into English;
  • Birth certificate;
In addition, the educational institution must declare that it will provide the student with appropriate living and study conditions in Denmark.
The term for consideration of the application is about 2 months. Cost — 1900 DKK. Detailed information can be found on the portal for foreign nationals.
It should be noted that a student residence permit gives the holder the right to attend Danish language lessons for free. However, you must be at least 18 years old and your local address must be registered in the Danish National Register. The local municipality is obliged to offer you Danish language lessons and refer you to a language center. If Danish courses have not been offered within a month after registering your address in Denmark, you must contact your municipality.

Ability to work while studying in Denmark

EU/EEA or Swiss citizens can work in Denmark with no restriction.
For other nationals, in addition to the student residence permit, a limited work permit is issued (sticker in the passport). If you did not apply for it during the registration of the residence permit, you can obtain permission from the Danish Immigration Service. Students are allowed to work:
  • Up to 20 hours per week during the regular period of study from September to May;
  • Full time in June, July and August.
If you are under 18, you need a written job offer or contract for a specific position. The employer must also register with the Danish Immigration Office. The limited permit is additionally valid for 6 months after completing a full education program in Denmark. This time is essentially given to find a permanent job.

Working more than 20 hours is illegal and may result in a warning, a fine, cancellation of a residence permit, deportation, and even incarceration.
Read more about working conditions in Denmark here.
Finding a job in Denmark is not always easy, especially without knowing the language. Some international students find jobs in bars or restaurants. Others distribute newspapers, work as telemarketers or translators. The minimum wage is about 110 DKK per hour[8].
Many universities have career centers that help students with job search. In addition, the official Danish website of international recruiting offers information on how to find suitable student work, how to write a resume, and how to pass interviews. Vacancies are also posted on the site.

Opportunities to stay and immigration to Denmark

Nordic, EU/EEA or Swiss citizens are eligible to stay and work in the country after studies without any limitations. However, they still need a registration certificate to live there.
Graduates from non-EU/EEA countries with a student residence permit can only look for work in Denmark for 6 months after graduation. During this time, you can work the same hours as during your studies: 20 hours a week and full time in June, July and August.
There is also an Establishment card, which gives you the right to work full time from the date of application or to run a business. The cardholder can be employed in any company and in any position in Denmark. After hiring, you do not need to apply for a separate permit, or a residence permit if you change jobs.

The Establishment card is issued for 2 years. It can be extended for 1 year if you work in your specialty. To obtain a card, you must:
  • Complete a bachelor's / master's / doctoral program at an accredited educational institution;
  • Apply for a card within 1 year after graduation;
  • Provide proof of funds, for example, with a bank statement with the amount equal to 89376 DKK (as of 2020).
Cost — 1900 DKK, application processing — 1 month. Here you can read more about the Establishment Card.
Denmark also has various work permits: for researchers, for shepherds and farmers, startups, Fast-track, etc. Here you can see all the possibilities presented.
To obtain Danish citizenship, you must have an unlimited residence permit and reside in Denmark. The application for Danish citizenship is reviewed by the Ministry of Immigration and Integration. Danish graduates can obtain citizenship after 5 years of continuous residence in Denmark. The main requirement is that education lasted at least 3 years. You can read more information here.

Job Prospects and Opportunities

Higher education institutions in Denmark cooperate with business organizations and research institutes. Business meetings, visits to leading companies and internships are organized for students. All this prepares future specialists for professional activities in international companies.
The Danish economy is dominated by the service sector which constitutes for 80% of all jobs, while about 11% of all personnel work is in the manufacturing industry, 2% in agriculture. The main industries are electronics, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food, furniture, fashion, machinery and equipment, tourism, oil and gas. The unemployment rate in the country as of February 2020 was 3.7%[9]. However, finding a job here is not easy. Knowledge of the Danish language and networking can be decisive factors in finding a job.
Diplomas from Danish universities are recognized all over the world, so it is relatively easy for a young specialist to find a job in other countries.

Denmark - General information
RegionNordic Countries
CapitalCopenhagen
LanguageDanish, Faroese
CurrencyDanish Krone
Population5,602,536
Students240,000
Foreigner students89.6%
Statistics - Education
Indicator
Popularity rating in the world27
Ranking of universities in the world14
Academic Reputation 29
Employer Reputation 24
Quality of teaching 22
International Faculty 22
International Students 12
Citations per Faculty 27
Statistics - Universities
Universities in top 100 2
Universities in top 200 3
Universities in top 500 5
Universities in top 1000 6
Universities in top 5000 8
Cost of living in Denmark
Expenses - USD/Month.Min.Med.
Accommodation 358 500
Food 228 523
Transportation 45 213
Communications and utilities 69 90
Clothing 32 120
Sports and leisure 25 114
Total7571,561
Accommodation in Denmark USD/Month.
Shared room outside of centre361
Shared room in city centre505
1 bedroom apartment outside of centre545
1 bedroom apartment in city centre792
Location on map